Finding the right price for the right to fly
Faced with crippling congestion on access roads to Heathrow, the BAA is reported to be discussing with London's mayor and the government the idea of imposing charges for âslotsâ on the approach roads to Britain's main hub. If the pricing mechanism can be introduced for surface access, why not extend the principle to runways?
The price paid to land or take off an aircraft at Heathrow, Europe's busiest airport, remains entirely divorced from the normal rules of demand and supply. The airport operator, BAA, is prevented from charging a market rate by a rigorously applied regulatory regime. Despite the latest protestations by the airlines over the Civil Aviation Authorityâs decision to raise landing charges, they remain well below the levels carriers would voluntarily pay if an auction system were introduced.
This arbitrary and irrational system of allocating scarce slots leads to pent-up demand for slots at Heathrow (as well as Gatwick and, to an increasing extent, Stansted), and pressure on existing terminals. The four terminals at Heathrow were designed to accommodate a maximum of 50m passengers, yet today handle over 60m. Traditionally, slots have been allocated on a grandfathering basis: an airline that holds and used a slot in the previous year is automatically entitled to use it or exchange it for another in the next year. Airlines do not pay anything for the slots they are allocated. While new entrants have a limited opportunity to acquire less popular slots through a pool system, access at slot-congested airports such as Heathrow is effectively crowded-out by incumbent carrie