Every ten years or so, environmental problems come to the fore and governments use a lot of energy trying to find solutions to problems such as global warming, global cooling, natural resource extraction and over-fishing. We are going through one such phase at the moment.
As Catholics, we should of course think of the needs of future generations and we should care for the created universe. Indeed, our own local Bishops conference published a document on the environment in 2002 though it left much to be desired.
There are three concepts in Catholic Social Teaching that are often held in constructive tension and that are relevant to environmental issues. The first is the primacy of private property and the autonomy of individuals and families. Secondly, there is the universal destination of goods and the recognition that private property, though very important, is not sacrosanct. Thirdly, there is the notion that government should always behave in such a way that promotes the common good: generally through supporting structures in which we can fulfil our own legitimate needs as individuals, families and in voluntary associations, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity. These ideas are particularly helpful in thinking about environmental problems. Can the common good and the rights of all peoples to a dignified living be properly served in the field of environmental policy by the institutions of private property, underpinned by a market economy?
Our Bishops were sceptical of this approach in their document. They were also highly pessimistic. In their words: Beautiful coasts have been turned into sewers, fertile soil lies barren or has turned into desert. Forests, often described as the lungs of the earth, are reduced to wasteland, and cities are choked with smog. The Bishops then point out that it is where poverty exists that environmental problems are at their most acute and that property rights must be restricted to deal with environmental problems.
Certainly this description of environmental apocalypse bears no relationship to the truth in the developed world or in our own country. In the UK, national income per head has more than doubled since 1970 yet energy usage has increased by only 13% and aggregate emissions have fallen by 60%. The output of all major pollutants had dropped to a third or a quarter of their 1970 levels by the end of the 20th century.
It is true that the poor suffer more from environmental problems. But we should be careful how we let this fact affect our thinking on environme