The EU is often seen as a benign political construct designed to promote economic freedom, particularly free trade. The analysis in this paper demonstrates this view to be incorrect. Instead, from the very beginning, the EU has used economic integration to promote political ends.
At first this economic integration may have promoted trade in the manufacturing sector. But in the last 30 years economic integration has been forged by increasing and making more uniform economic regulation. If this succeeds in creating political union, as is envisaged by the EU itself, this will be a Union that is damaging to European and global economic freedom and hostile to the US.
2004, Discussion Paper 8
The European Institutions as an Interest Group by Roland Vaubel
Better Off Out? The Benefits or Costs of EU Membership by Brian Hindley and Martin Howe.